Dangers of Excessive Use of Over-the-Counter Drugs

Over-the-counter medicines are good for relieving pain, allergies, cough and cold fast. But if taken without considering the right dosage can lead to serious organ damages and death.

Some people are unconsciously addicted to these medicines and this could be a problem because they can be bought without prescription. There are also no visible signs on the person unlike those addicted to dangerous drugs. Addiction could start with one harmless tablet until the person feels dependent on the medicine for relief. Other people start increasing the dosage and take more than one tablet or capsule a day.

Pain Relievers or Analgesics
Overdosing on pain relievers like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin), paracetamol or acetaminophen, and opiods (e.g., codeine) is quite common and some even use them to commit suicide. The symptoms include sweating, irritability, diarrhea, and nausea. Later, your body shuts down slowly and painfully. Most die because of liver failure.

Overdosing can also cause stomach pains, headaches, gallstones and liver damage. Withdrawal can cause headaches and irritability.

Antihistamines
Overdosing on antihistamines like diphenhydramine can cause mild to severe symptoms but it’s rarely fatal. The person experiences spasms, seizures, hallucinations, drowsiness, and flushing. But it can also lead to kidney damage and appendicitis.

Never try to mix antihistamines with medications for sleeping problems or motion-sickness because some have the same ingredients. You could still overdose on two different medicines unknowingly.

Cold and Cough Relief
Some people use over-the-counter cough medicines to get high. That feeling comes from the ingredient dextromethorphan, which is common in most cold and cough relief drugs.

Overdosing on dextromethorphan can cause euphoria, hallucinations, distortions in vision and hearing, vomiting, and drowsiness.

Combinations to Avoid
Sometimes when we’re sick, there is a tendency to rely on medicines to treat every symptom. Those who don’t feel like they’re getting any relief tend to ignore the instructions on when and how much drugs should be taken. There are cases of unintentional overdoses because of a combination of drugs.

Don’t mix any of the mentioned medicines with too much alcohol and other drugs without the doctor’s advice. Never take more than one type of the same drug together, like taking one opiod and another with acetaminophen or paracetamol. They can also be lethal when mixed with energy drinks, motion sickness medicine, laxatives, diuretics and herbal products. Herbal products are just as bad because they can be bought without prescription and do not usually undergo the same strict regulation as other medicines.

Moderate Use
These medicines are not harmful. In fact, they’re safer than herbal supplements. It’s this assumption however that can lead to mistakes. Too much of something is bad for you, as the saying goes. Take only one medicine at a time and each should be spaced out as indicated by the label. Never go beyond the dosage prescribed and it wouldn’t hurt to read the instructions.

If you feel like over-the-counter drugs don’t have an effect on you, then it’s time to visit the doctor. Perhaps you’re experiencing more than just a regular cold.

Horror Films That Are NOT Campy

Some fans of the horror genre are turned off by so many releases of slasher films that sometimes even turn into a hit movie series. The article isn’t making fun of other people’s choice of the dark and macabre, but sometimes its refreshing to see films that aren’t about semi-human psychopaths with sharp saws for forks.

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920)
This classic silent horror film features the hypnotist Dr. Caligari who uses the somnambulist Cesare to kill people. Francis, who is having problems with his fiancee, investigates the murder of his friend Alan who earlier had visited Cesare.

Hellraiser (1987)
This is the first of Clive Barker’s films of a gruesome tale of Frank who was resurrected after he escaped an alternate dimension populated by Cenobites. His niece Julia had solved a puzzle box and meets Pinhead, the leader of the Cenobites.

Fallen (1998)
Detective John Hobbes investigates murders which seemed to have been copied by a recently executed serial killer whom he captured earlier. Further investigation revealed that another detective in the past uncovered the mystery but ended up committing suicide.

Uzumaki (2000)
Based on the manga of the same title by Junji Ito, it’s a frightening tale of a town obsessed with spirals. Kirie is disturbed by one of Kurouzu’s resident’s love for the patterns on a snail. He later went inside a washing machine to find more spirals.

Secret Window (2004)
Based on a novella by Stephen King, it tells about the descent of Morton Rainey into madness. He was in the process of divorcing his wife and was trying to finish his work, but someone is accusing him of plagiarism.

Three… Extremes (2005)
It’s a compilation of three short films from East Asian writers and directors. “Dumplings” is about an actress who wants to become younger following her discover of her husband’s infidelity. “Cut” is about a film director who is threatened by one of his extras because of jealousy. “Box” tells the story of Kyoko who recalls her frightening past as a circus performer.

The Descent (2005)
Six friends enter a cave system in the Appalachian Mountains and were trapped. One of the women, Juno, claimed that she led them to an unknown cave system so she can restore their friendship. In the cave, they find human-looking creatures.

Pan’s Labyrinth (2006)
Ofelia and her mother move in with Captain Vidal. She was led by a stick insect to a stone labyrinth where a faun tells her that she is the Princess Moanna, the daughter of the king of the underworld. Ofelia has to perform three tasks to become immortal.

A Girl Walks Home Alone at Night (2014)
Arash was about to pay the drug-dealer Saeed when he found that the latter was murdered. The woman who supposedly killed Saeed found Arash after he was drugged and lost. Not knowing what she was, Arash gave her the earrings he was supposed to use as payment for Saeed.

Procedures in Diagnosing Cardiovascular Diseases

If you are hypertensive or there are abnormalities found in your heart during a general check-up, your primary doctor in Singapore will recommend heart screening to determine if you have a cardiovascular disease.

If you see symptoms that are associated with heart diseases, you should look for the best cardiologist at the nearest hospital. Different techniques are employed by the cardiologist whom you will be referred to. Let’s look at each procedure.

Checking Your Blood Pressure

The first part in a heart screening is the manual checking of your blood pressure. In this procedure, a cardiologist will use a sphygmomanometer to check the systolic and diastolic pressures. This is usually a good indicator if you have hypertension. The systolic pressure is the upper number and indicates the pressure of the blood on the artery walls. The diastolic pressure is the lower number indicating the pressure on the artery walls when the heart is at rest. The result is measured in mm Hg, and the normal blood pressure is no more than 120/80 mm Hg.

Electrocardiogram

Electrocardiogram or ECG or EKG is a procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. The result, which is read by either a technician or cardiologist, will show if there are abnormal rhythms or arrhythmias and heart muscle damage in the heart. Each electrical impulse that causes the muscles of the heart to pump will be recorded, particularly the timing of the top and lower chambers of the heart. The cardiologist will look at the interval of the waves and the amount of electrical activity.

Echocardiogram

Echocardiogram, also called echo, uses high-pitched sound waves to assess the condition of the chambers and valves and the pumping action of the heart. You can click here for more info on heart check before going for one. On a monitor, this heart screening process will show an image created by the sound waves that bounce off the parts of the organ. The heart doctor will use an ultrasound probe over the skin surface of the patient. There are three types of echocardiograms; Doppler, transthoracic, stress and transesophageal echocardiogram.

Cardiac CT Scan

The computed tomography scan uses X-rays to check the heart and the blood vessels. There are three types of cardiac CT scan based on what the cardiologist is trying to look for. Coronary calcium scan is for determining the build-up of calcium deposits in the arteries. CT angiography is done to monitor blockages and changes in the arteries. A cardiac CT scan is also done to check the pulmonary arteries and aorta. This last technique is a combination of the two.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI of the heart uses radiofrequencies and magnets to create images of the heart and blood vessels. This procedure will determine the health of your heart’s valves, the major vessels and even the presence of other abnormalities in the system. A heart surgeon will also require a magnetic resonance angiography or MRA before any heart procedure is performed on a patient.

Thallium Scans

Thallium scans are also called myocardial perfusion scans. In this procedure, a laboratory technician will intravenously inject radioactive sestamibi so that a camera can take photos of the heart. It is recommended by a cardiologist so that the blood supply to the heart can be viewed. This will tell him/her if there are areas in the heart that do not receive enough blood. There are four types of thallium scans used in hospitals in Singapore today.

Blood Tests

Blood tests will also be recommended by the cardiologist especially for hypertensive patients who are taking medication. The tests will check the level of cholesterol and triglycerides, sugar, C-reactive protein or CRP, ceramides, brain or B-type natriuretic peptide, creatine kinase or CK, creatine kinase-MB, cardiac troponin or troponin T, myoglobin, and urine albumin/creatinine ratio. The cardiologist will ask you to have a 12 to 14-hour fast before cardiac blood tests are performed. Don’t forget to tell him/her about other medications and supplements that you’re taking.

Stress Test

A stress test may be done by asking the patient to use a treadmill or a stationary bike. Also called exercise ECG, the result of this test will tell the heart doctor in Singapore if a person’s breathing and blood pressure are within normal range during and after a strenuous physical activity. The cardiologist may also administer medicines which will stress the heart during the procedure. The result will help the heart doctor determine if the patient has a high risk of developing coronary artery disease. This is also a way for the heart surgeon to determine if the patient can start exercising after a heart surgery was performed.

Cardiac Catheterization

Cardiac catheterization or coronary angiogram is done by placing a narrow hollow tube into the artery in your upper leg, arm or the heart. When the dye is injected, X-ray photos will be taken as it travels through the patient’s heart. The cardiologist will recommend this procedure to determine the extent of the narrowing in the arteries, the functioning of the valves and others.

Positron Emission Tomography Scan

Also called PET scan, it a procedure that looks for signs of damage or abnormalities in the flow of blood and the heart muscles. PET scan is a nuclear scan that uses a radioactive tracer that is given intravenously. You will be asked to lie down in a scanner so the technician can record the signals on the monitor. The heart doctor might recommend a PET F-18 FDG scan to look for damages in the heart. The heart surgeon will also ask for this procedure to assess your condition after a heart surgery.

Tilt Table Test

In this test, you will be asked to lie down on a table. The laboratory technician will secure you on the table with straps and connect an ECG and a blood pressure monitor. The table will tilt you in standing and lying positions alternately to see if your blood pressure and pulse rate suddenly change when you are lying down or standing up.

How to Clean Fabric and Non-Fabric Curtains

Curtain cleaning should be done at least once every three months according to some experts, but there are a lot of things to consider when choosing which curtain cleaning method is right. Most of the materials used can be machine-washed, but special fabrics and non-fabric curtains are a bit tricky.

Here are some tips on how to clean the most common non-fabric and fabric curtains.

Non-Fabric Curtains

Besides fabric curtains and drapery, there are other window treatments to choose from, such as; Roman shades, solar shades, shutters, faux wood blinds, wood blinds, woven wood shades, cellular shades, roller shades, panel track blinds, pleated shades, and sheer shades.

Curtain cleaning is based on the type of material used for the window treatment. If you use mostly non-fabric curtains at home, contact a curtain cleaning services shop in Singapore like www.curtainrepair.com that specializes in such materials to avoid damaging the materials.

    Roman Shades should not be vacuumed because you’ll damage the stitching, instead, spot-clean it by spraying a fabric freshener or upholstery cleaner.
    Solar Shades can be cleaned with a shade cleaning agent, soapy water, and soft-bristled brush.
    Shutters should be brushed with water and dish detergent then hosed down to remove the dirt. After rinsing, wipe the shutters with microfiber cloth to dry.
    Faux Wood Blinds can be wiped with cloth dipped in soapy water. Then make sure to dry the blinds with a microfiber cloth.
    Wood Blinds are washed with cloth dipped in soapy warm water, but each slat should be dried with a clean cloth thoroughly.
    Woven Wood Shades should not be washed with water, instead, vacuum the shades every week and apply a furniture polish.
    Cellular Shades should not be washed or scrubbed because these can damage the material. Regular dusting and spot-cleaning of stubborn stains should be enough.
    Roller Shades can be cleaned with a damp cloth or sponge dipped in soapy water. Rinse the material with a cloth or sponge, too, then leave the shade fully extended when drying.
    Panel Track Blinds are cleaned using a damp sponge or cloth. Start by wiping from the bottom then work your way upwards. Regular dusting, however, should be enough if there is no stubborn stain.
    Pleated Shades can be cleaned only by vacuuming, dusting, and spot-cleaning. If there is a stain, contact a professional curtain cleaning services shop in Singapore.
    Sheer Shades are made from delicate materials, that is why regular dusting or vacuuming should be performed to avoid heavy soiling. Avoid using soap and water on sheer shades.

Fabric Curtains

Some of the most common fabrics used for curtains and drapery are the following: calico, chintz, dotted Swiss, jacquard, linen, muslin, satin, tapestry, velvet, burnout, canvas, damask, gingham, lace, moiré, nylon, organza, taffeta, toile, and voile.

Each fabric has a different care requirement, that is why curtain cleaning can sometimes be tricky, especially with delicate fabrics that are difficult to dry. If you’re not sure how to clean your curtains, contact the nearest curtain cleaning services shop in Singapore. Items that can only be dry-cleaned should not be washed with water and water-based detergent. Send them to a curtain dry cleaning shop to avoid damaging the material. Decorative items are not meant to be washed because they have linings, embellishments, crinoline, trims, and welting. Fabrics labeled with an S code, which stands for solvent, on the care instructions need curtain dry cleaning.

    Calico should only be spot-treated, brushed or dusted, vacuum-cleaned or sprayed with a stain repellent. If there are heavy stains, do not wash it yourself. Professional curtain cleaning services will do a better job.
    Chintz is known for its glaze, but frequent cleaning can make it fade, that is why it’s better to take the item to a professional curtain dry cleaning shop in Singapore who knows how to handle this delicate fabric.
    Jacquard is also an S-labeled fabric that needs to be handled carefully to avoid color bleeding and shrinking by using a special stain remover and solvent when spot-cleaning.
    Linen can resist dirt more easily and can stand up to most curtain cleaning methods and different water temperatures. However, separate colored linen from whites, but never use bleach to remove the stain
    Muslin can be machine-washed using the normal cycle, but you should place it in a laundry bag to avoid snagging. It can also be tumble-dried on low or laid flat to dry.
    Satin should only be hand-washed, but if the care label says it can be machine-washed, set the washer on a delicate cycle, then rinse in cold water.
    Tapestry should be dusted or vacuumed, but it can also be dry-cleaned if it’s heavily stained or exposed to smoke.
    Velvet can be machine-washed if it’s stated on the label, but set the machine on the lightest cycle. Hang it or lay it flat to dry.
    Burnout can be machine-washed on a gentle cycle if the care label says that you don’t need to hand-wash it. Use the mildest detergent you can find to prevent any damage.
    Canvas should not be machine-washed or exposed to heat because these can alter the appearance of the curtain. Take it to the nearest curtain cleaning services in Singapore if vacuuming or dusting doesn’t work.
    Damask should only be hand-washed or machine-washed in delicate cycle. Use only cool water and mild detergent for this fabric.
    Lace can be washed with water and detergent if you use a fabric made for delicate fabrics. Curtain cleaning services can machine-wash lace by setting the washer on gently cycle then soaking the material for 30 minutes if it’s heavily stained. Then it’s laid flat on a surface to dry it.
    Nylon can be machine-washed if you place it in a laundry bag and hung or laid flat to dry. Wrap it in a dryer sheet if you’re going to use a dryer.
    Organza can be machine-washed in warm or cool setting if it doesn’t have any embellishments.

Introduction to Trading Card Games

If you think card games are a thing of the past, well think again. Collectible card games have a lot of fans among grownups and it’s an industry that still sells millions around the world. Collectors spend as much money for cards as those who play video games. Other video game franchises also have trading card versions.

Origin of Trading Card Games
Known as TCG, it’s also called the collectible card game. It started in 1993 as a different type of playing cards similar to a 52-card deck. Card games have been recorded since the 12th century. There were baseball card collectibles in the early 1900s but there were no definite rules on how to play them.

The rules employed in TCG are much more complex and the cards vary. It’s like playing a strategy tabletop game. TCG is different from another type of game called deck-building game in which players use the cards as a sort of currency during a game.

The player collects cards with different attributes and features by random. Players can also trade cards or packs.

The first TCG was Magic: The Gathering by Richard Garfield. It is still considered today as the best TCG.

How Do I Play
Beginners can usually start with an intro deck consisting of basic cards that can be put into play. By collecting more cards, trading with other players and buying booster packs, the player can have more choices during the duels.

Cards usually contain instructions on how they are used. The different TCGs have their own set of rules, but we’ll be using Magic: The Gathering or MTG as an example.

The players begin the game with a life of 20 points each. Each one must have at least 60 cards. Once a player’s life is at zero, the remaining player will win. They take turns attacking each other using creatures and casting spells. In MTG, there are seven types of cards, namely; land, creature for attacking and defending, artifacts for equipment and items, enchantment, planeswalker which has abilities different from creatures, and sorcery and instants which can both be cast only once. The rules take time to master, but once you know how the cards work, you will be hooked. To cast spells for example, you have to understand how mana works. In MTG, you have to cast cards called lands to obtain mana.

The Best Trading Card Games of All Time
If you want to give TCG a shot, here are the best games you should check out. Some of these games also have digital versions.

1. Magic: The Gathering
2. Yu-Gi-Oh!
3. Pokemon
4. Duel Masters
5. HEX: Shards of Fate
6. World of Warcraft
7. Scrolls
8. Urban Rivals
9. Legend of the Five Rings
10. Vampire: The Eternal Struggle
11. Star Wars: The Card Game
12. Middle-Earth Collectible Card Game
13. Shadowfist
14. Android: Netrunner

Essential Items Men Should Have

You don’t have to be vain to consider owning these items. Not only will they help your appearance, but you’ll feel more confident as well.

Wristwatch. Invest in a quality wristwatch. That is the only accessory, besides your wedding ring, respectable-looking man will ever need to make a good impression.

Cologne. Having your own signature scent can be attractive to the ladies. Don’t pick a bottle randomly. Find a scent that matches your personality and lifestyle and make it your own.

Wallet. Not all men like the idea of carrying huge bags to work, but you will still need a wallet for important small items like your cards. A well-made leather wallet can last for a long time.

Travel Bag. Whether you choose a sling bag or a back pack, always have an extra bag for traveling separate from the one you bring to the office.

Grooming Kit. Yes, there are grooming kits made especially for men. Included in the set should be a comb, nail clippers, hair styling products like gel and lip balm.

Dopp Kit. The name comes from the man who invented the pouches for toiletry of soldiers. It’s similar to your grooming kit too. The set should include shampoo, deodorant, soap and facial wash, toothbrush and toothpaste, lotion and a shaving kit.

Sunglasses. The weather in Singapore can be harsh on your body including your eyes. Squinting isn’t stylish either. You can also hide dark spots under the eyes by wearing shades.

Toolbox. You should always be ready for emergencies and repairs at home. Have screwdrivers, hammer, pliers, power tools and other items handy. Place them in a container that is easy to store and carry.

Multipurpose Tool. You can’t bring your toolbox at the office so you should at least have a pocket tool for emergencies. Pick a Swiss knife or a pocket knife. A small bottle opener can also be handy during special occasions.

Journal and Pen. Even if you can use your smartphone to record data, you might still need pen and paper to write down information quickly. There are journals that look sleek and stylish and can fit in your pockets.

Full-Sized Umbrella. You wouldn’t want to walk under the rain and get your clothes soaked. Choose a black umbrella if you’re worried about colors and patterns that stand out.

Headphones/Earphones. If you love listening to music while you work, you should have headphones in your bag. You can also choose earphones with built-in mic to answer calls.

Factors to Consider Before Deciding to Own a Pet

Having a pet at home offers enormous health, social and emotional benefits. In fact, even just seeing mine run around the house is already enough to inspire me to start each day right. But I have to say though that being a pet owner is not for everyone. So if you’re thinking of getting a pet, here are some factors that you should first consider before you bring one home.

1. Time to Care for Pets

One of the most important factors you should consider before becoming a pet owner is if you actually have the time to care for your chosen pet. Caring for domestic pets like cats and dogs will require a considerable amount of your time and attention. This is especially true for dogs, since they tend to feel lonely when left alone for longer periods. If you won’t be able to devote enough time to interact or play with your pet, then consider getting pets that are less demanding with time and attention, such as a fish.

2. Cost of Caring for Pets

Ensuring the health of pets like birds, cats and dogs can be costly, especially if they get injured or ill. Consider talking to other pet owners to get a good idea of the cost of veterinary care. By doing this, you can set the right budget for both regular and emergency veterinary visits.

3. Suitable Environment

Different pets require different environments. While pets like gerbils, cats and fishes are fine with almost any type of dwelling, dogs tend to do better in certain environments. They can be happy in both high-rise buildings and houses as long as there’s an access to outdoor parks. Also, remember that not all buildings and establishments in Singapore allow pets so be sure to check with your building rules first before you proceed on bringing one home.

4. Allergic Reactions

Certain pets won’t be appropriate for your home if you or any member of the family have allergies. Guinea pigs, rabbits, cats and certain breeds of dogs do well with children, but some canine breeds might not be suitable for families with infants. Before taking any pet home, have every member of the household exposed to it first to check if anyone might be allergic.

5. Pet Trainings

Another area that you should be honest with yourself is whether or not you have enough time and ability to train your pet. Certain pets (such as dogs) require a lot of training, while there some that won’t involve any amount of training at all. If you’re a first-time dog owner, see if you and your dog can take an obedience training to know more about proper dog ownership and improve the habits of your dog.

The rewards of owning a pet are great, but do keep in mind that being a pet owner comes with responsibilities too. As long as you have realistic expectations about owning a pet, and make due preparations, then the joy and personal growth you’ll experience with your pet will be limitless.

Parenting Mistakes That Could Harm a Child’s Well-Being

Being a parent can be a really tough job. Not only must they lead their children to adulthood, they also need to act as their guardians to keep them safe from mental and physical harm. The balance between these two can be quite difficult to achieve, and even with the best intentions, it’s still possible to commit mistakes that could negatively impact the well-being and growth of your children. By being aware of these pitfalls, however, you can hopefully avoid committing them and keep your children safe from its long-term harm.

1. Imposing Your Will on Them

As a determined parent, it’s only natural that you want your children to follow in your footsteps. There might be some unhealthy psychological reasons behind this, however, such living vicariously through their actions or controlling them. Either way, it’s crucial to ensure that you don’t rashly impose your will on your children, as this could cause them to take on a path that leads to discontent or failure. Instead, simply offer them an objective advice when they need one and refrain from influencing their decisions.

2. Stopping Them From Taking Risks

Learning how to take calculated risks is an important part of adulthood, and keeping your child from learning such a crucial life lesson could negatively impact his or her well-being later on. It may be your duty to protect the mental and physical well-being of your child, but do consider balancing your approach if you’re to achieve your parenting goal. Understand that children need to take on risks to build independence and develop their maturity.

3. Letting Guilt Interfere With Your Parenting

Other than fear, guilt is another factor that prevents effective parenting. This is especially true for first-time parents who don’t want to disappoint or upset their kids even in situations where their demands are not in their best interest. Such mistake is evident on a spoiled child who has a high sense of entitlement, which breeds traits like selfishness and arrogance later in life. So as early as possible, avoid yielding into such an irrational sense of guilt whenever you can’t give or follow what your child wants.

4. Rescuing Them Too Quickly

Another parenting mistake that could negatively impact your child’s well-being is rescuing them too quickly from their problems. While it may help in immediately resolving their issues, over-indulging your kids with your assistance will prevent them from navigating through the hardships and solving problems on their own. Your child will likely get used to having someone rescue them from their troubles, and that will keep them from becoming competent and independent adults later on.

While it’s a parent’s duty to help and protect their children, it’d be best to avoid committing any of these mistakes to help your kids foster their well-being and develop independence.

What is Hairstyling?

Between skin care products and hairstyling chemicals, it’s difficult to say which one will come out the winner as the most important beauty regimen, but it’s clear that the beauty industry is here to stay. Humans have been obsessed with styling their hair as much as making their skin beautiful, that is why the hair salon is a popular business venture.

Let’s look at the history, tools and techniques of hairstyling.

Hairstyling History

No one knows for sure how our ancestors styled their hair when the hair salon didn’t yet exist during the Stone Age, but experts think that the people cut their hair using sharp flint or shells. The fashionable ancient Egyptians chose to shave their heads so they can wear wigs instead, if they didn’t color it with henna. For the ancient Greeks, hairstyling was an art form and it became part of cosmetics, which comes from the word “cosmetikos,” meaning “skilled in the use of cosmetics.” They were also the first people to use artificial curlers using bronze rods. The Romans added meaning to the color of the hair, because it was a symbol of your class. The nobles dyed their hair red, the commoners blonde, and the poor black.

Hairstyling as a profession became more important, however, when the Roman Catholic church issued a decree that all facial hair should be removed by the clergymen. During the Renaissance, the women shaved their hairline so that their foreheads appeared bigger. It was not until the 1600s when the word “hairdresser” was used the name for the profession. At this time too, a male monarch popularized the use of wigs to hide his thinning hair, a trend that lasted for over a century until taxes were imposed on the use of male wigs.

In 1762, the word “shampoo” was coined to describe the chemical made from boiling soap in water sprinkled with herbs and fragrances. It wasn’t until 1952, however, when the first liquid shampoo was manufactured. In 1790, the aerosol hairspray was used and in 1845, hot metal combs were invented to straighten unruly hair.

In 1907, the first synthetic hair dye was marketed, and years later the women’s razor and Bobby pins came into use. In 1928, a product made from beeswax, mineral oil, and water is marketed as a hairstyling product for men. Finally, in 1980, a modern version of the curling iron became available.

Hairstylist, Haidresser and Barber

Is there a difference in what the hairstylist, hairdresser and barber do? The three names have different origins, but nowadays, their job descriptions overlap. The main concern of a Singapore hair salon used to be the hair design, while it was the hairdresser’s job to do the cutting, dyeing, and shampooing of hair. The barber, on the other hand, was responsible for shaving, cutting, styling, grooming, and dressing men’s hair. There was even a time when barbers also performed dentistry and surgery on their clients.

Today, all hairstylists, hairdressers and barbers can do all the jobs at any hair salon in Singapore. Their duties at the hair salon include shampooing, cutting, trimming, coloring, perming, and styling hair, wigs, extensions and hairpieces; shaving, trimming, and shaping mustaches and beards; analyzing hair and scalp problems and suggesting treatments; and suggesting hairstyles for their clients.

They are also responsible in keeping the hair salon clean and organized. The best hair salon in Singapore cleans and sterilizes all their styling tools and equipment regularly to avoid the spread of infection. When choosing a hairstylist, make sure that he/she knows all the latest hair trends and talks to you about the look you want to achieve. A good hairstylist will also give you pointers on how to maintain healthy hair and scalp by recommending a styling routine and a set of hair care products.

Hairstyling Tools

The hairstylist uses a lot of hair products made from natural and synthetic chemicals to change, improve or style your hair. However, the items below are the most common tools you will find at the hair salon.

1. Combs and brushes are for detangling, smoothing, styling, and finishing hair.

2. Curling iron is used in a hair salon to change the curl pattern of your hair temporarily. The hair shafts are exposed to heat and can be styled any way you want.

3. Flat iron is similar to the curling iron, but instead of curling, it straightens your hair or parts of your hair temporarily. It is also used to straighten kinks when the hair is treated with straightening chemicals.

4. Blow-dryer is the most important styling tool in any hair salon in Singapore. It is a type of heating tool used to dry damp hair quickly.

Hairstyling Techniques

There are hundreds of hairstyles available today for any type of hair that can be achieved at the hair salon. But what techniques do the hairstylists use to create those hairstyles? Here are a few.

1. Knowing the hair type and texture. Hair type and hair texture will determine the best way to style your hair. Your hair type is determined by your genes and can either be straight, wavy, curly, and kinky. You will know you’re in the best hair salon in Singapore if the stylists take their time to give you a consultation before any procedure is recommended.

2. Proper blow-drying. A good blowout will give make your hair appear healthier, full-bodied, and shiny. The hairstylist also has to consider your hair type when using the blow-dryer to avoid frizz. That is why the hair salon has to apply a conditioner or moisturizer for your hair before blow-drying.

3. Proper curling and straightening. A good hair salon uses only the safe ceramic curler to add luster and silkiness to your hair. The hairstylist will adjust the heat settings based on your hair type to avoid burns, frizz and other damage. The same is true when straightening your hair using heating tools. The hairstylist will usually begin with the hair near your nape and work slowly up.

6 Reasons to Fall in Love With Singapore

Singapore is said to be the Southeast Asian version of New York City. It may be small on the map, but much like New York, this little city has an entire world to offer. And even if people described the city-state as a playground for the rich, the Little Red Dot can still be as awe-inspiring even if you put all the luxurious and extraordinary experiences aside.

There are a lot of reasons to fall in love with Singapore, and we bet you’d be just as impressed as most globetrotters are. Here are six of our favourite reasons why we truly love and adore the City of Lion.

  1. It has the best airport in the world

Singapore’s Changi International Airport is consistently voted as the world’s best airport by both consumer and industry polls. When you get a glimpse of the airport’s movie theatre, swimming pool, beauty centers and even nature trails, you’ll be begging to have your flight delayed in Singapore.

  1. The weather is predictable

The weather is pretty decisive here. When it rains, it pours (literally!), and when it shines, it really is blaring hot. Either way, it’s almost always warm, so it’s easier to get dressed. Just make sure to bring an umbrella with you to protect you from extreme weather condition.

  1. There’s always something anytime, anywhere

The city is still alive even after sundown. People are still busy and shops are still open for business. When you forgot to buy bae an anniversary gift or you desperately need an outfit for an event in the morning, the long retail hours are your lifesaver.

  1. The city is immaculately clean

Litter on the ground or garbage along sidewalks are practically non-existent that you’d wonder where they would throw their garbage. Everything, from public transportations to the city streets to the benches on the sidewalk, are unbelievably clean.

  1. It’s one of the safest, if not the safest city of the world

When you visit Singapore, you’ll be confident to explore the city even in the wee hours of the day without the fear of getting robbed. This speaks volumes about how safe Singapore is and how disciplined the people are.

  1. It’s a multi-cultural city

Not many countries can claim that they’re a multi-cultural land, which makes the Little Red Dot even more special. In Singapore, people celebrate Chinese New Year, Deepavali, Hari Raya Haji and Christmas; people eat nasi lemak, Indian curry, chicken rice, pasta and bread and burger and fries. It’s like living in a big, happy family when you’re in Singapore.

Whether you’re visiting Singapore for business or just for vacation, there’s so much to enjoy in this little city-state. See Singapore for yourself, and discover more reasons to love the City of Lion.

1 2 3 13